Think and Grow Rich: Book Summary

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“THINK AND GROW RICH” was 25 years in the making. It is Napoleon Hill’s newest book, based upon his famous Law of Success Philosophy. His work and writings have been praised by great leaders in Finance, Education, Politics, and Government.


The Thirteen Steps to Riches described in this book offer the shortest dependable philosophy of individual achievement ever presented for the benefit of the man or woman who is searching for a definite goal in life.

Want to know how?

Favorite quote:

The time will never be “just right.” Start where you stand, and work with whatever tools you may have at your command, and better tools will be found as you go along.

Let’s get started.

For just 1 page summary you can click here.


Thomas A. Edison must be well-known to everyone because the story begins here.

When a boy named Barnes expressed interest in being Thomas’s partner, Thomas had no response for him.

Barnes did not get his partnership with Edison on his first interview. He did get a chance to work in the Edison offices, at a very nominal wage, doing work that was unimportant to Edison, but most important to Barnes, because it gave him an opportunity to display his “merchandise” where his intended “partner” could see it. Months went by.

Apparently, nothing happened to bring the coveted goal that Barnes had set up in his mind as his DEFINITE MAJOR PURPOSE. But something important was happening in Barnes’ mind.

He was constantly intensifying his DESIRE to become the business associate of Edison. Psychologists have correctly said that “when one is truly ready for a thing, it puts in its appearance.”

When the opportunity came, it appeared in a different form, and from a different direction than Barnes had expected.

That is one of the tricks of opportunity. It has a sly habit of slipping in by the back door, and often it comes disguised in the form of misfortune, or temporary defeat. Perhaps this is why so many fail to recognize the opportunity.

Mr. Edison had just perfected a new office device, known at that time, as the Edison Dictating Machine (now the Epiphone).

His salesmen were not enthusiastic about the machine. They did not believe it could be sold without great effort. Barnes saw his opportunity.

It had crawled in quietly, hidden in the queer-looking machine that interested no one but Barnes and the inventor. Barnes knew he could sell the Edison Dictating Machine. He suggested this to Edison and promptly got his chance.

He did sell the machine. In fact, he sold it so successfully that Edison gave him a contract to distribute and market it all over the nation.

Out of that business association grew the slogan, “Made by Edison and installed by Barnes.”

Thomas noticed a burning desire in his eye, which convinced him that this guy could drop everything to achieve his goals.

The author hopes to convey through this story the importance of having a strong desire for your goals.


The First Step Toward Riches

Everyone who reaches the age at which they can comprehend the function of money wishes they had some. Hoping won’t make you rich.

Riches will come from wanting money so badly that it becomes an obsession, from preparing specific ways to get money, from implementing those plans with tenacity and disregard for failure, and from following through.

Six specific, doable actions make up the process by which Yearning for riches can be transformed into its monetary equivalent:

First. Set the precise amount of money that you want in your head. Just stating, “I want a lot of money,” is insufficient. Be specific about the sum. (There is a psychological cause for definiteness which the author will address in a subsequent chapter).

Second, decide precisely what you’ll offer in exchange for the money you want. (There is no such reality as “something for nothing.)

Decide on a specific date by which you want to have the money you want.

Fourth, whether you’re ready or not, make a clear plan for achieving your goal and start implementing it right now.

Fifth, make a clear, succinct explanation of the quantity of money you desire to obtain, the time frame for doing so, what you intend to contribute in exchange for the money, and the strategy you intend to use to do so.

Sixth. Every day, immediately before going to bed at night and right after waking up in the morning, read your written statement out twice. While you read, picture, feel, and believe that you already have the money in your possession.

Only those who become “money conscious” ever accumulate huge riches. When the mind is “money conscious,” it indicates that one’s desire for money has completely overtaken it and one can see having it.


The Second Step toward Riches

The chief chemical of the mind is FAITH. Like in the case of prayer, the subconscious mind instantaneously detects the vibration when FAITH is combined with the vibration of thinking, converts it into its spiritual equivalent, and transfers it to Infinite Intelligence.

The most potent of all the primary positive emotions are FAITH, LOVE, and SEX. When the three are combined, the vibration of thought is “colored” in such a way that it instantaneously enters the subconscious mind and is transformed there into its spiritual equivalent, which is the only form that elicits a response from Infinite Intelligence.

Love and faith are psychological; they have to do with a person’s spiritual side.

S*x is exclusively biological and has a physical component.

These three emotions can be combined or blended to provide a direct channel of communication between the infinite intelligence and the finite, thinking mind of man.

How To Develop Faith.

A better understanding of the role that the principle of auto-suggestion plays in transforming desire into its material or financial equivalent will come from the following statement:

FAITH is a state of mind that can be induced or created through affirmation or repeated instructions to the subconscious mind via the principle of auto-suggestion.

The only known way to voluntarily build the emotion of faith is to repeat commands to your subconscious mind.

Your subconscious mind behaves in a way that is determined by your BELIEF or FAITH.

When you invoke your subconscious mind, act in a way that would be consistent with how you would behave if you WERE ALREADY IN POSSESSION OF THE MATERIAL ITEM THAT YOU ARE DEMANDING.

Any order communicated to the subconscious mind while it is in a state of BELIEF or FAITH that the order will be carried out will cause it to transmute into its physical equivalent using the most direct and useful means available.


The Third Step toward Riches

The word “auto-suggestion” refers to any suggestions and self-administered stimuli that enter a person’s head through the five senses.

Autosuggestion is also known as self-suggestion. It functions as a channel of communication between the area of the mind where conscious thought occurs and the region that houses the subconscious mind’s seat of action.

The principle of autosuggestion voluntarily enters the subconscious mind and impacts it with the dominant thoughts that one allows to remain there (whether these thoughts are positive or negative is irrelevant).

The mere act of reading out your statement of desire—through which you are attempting to establish a “money consciousness”—will have no impact unless you infuse it with passion or feeling.

Without adding emotion and Conviction to your words, even if you repeat the famous Emil Coué phrase a million times, “Day by day, in every way, I am growing better and better,” you will not achieve the desired results.

Only thoughts that have been effectively blended with emotion or sensation are recognized by and acted upon by your subconscious mind.

Emotionless words have little impact on the subconscious. You won’t see any noticeable changes until you learn to speak or think in a way that is well emotionalized by BELIEF in order to access your subconscious mind.

If you try to manage and direct your emotions for the first time and are unsuccessful, do not give up. Keep in mind that it is impossible to get something for nothing. It costs money to be able to affect and influence your subconscious mind, and you MUST PAY THAT PRICE.

Even if you want to cheat, you can’t. The cost of being able to affect your subconscious mind is constant PERSISTENCE in putting these concepts into practice.

You cannot develop the desired ability for a lower price. You, and YOU ALONE, must choose whether the reward (the “money consciousness”) for which you are working is worthwhile given the amount of work required to obtain it.


The Fourth Step toward Riches

The majority of lecturers have meager budgets or none at all. They have a focus on knowledge transmission, but not on knowledge organization or application.

If knowledge is not organized and intelligently directed through realistic PLANS OF ACTION, to the DEFINITE GOAL of money growth, knowledge will not attract money.

Millions of people who wrongly assume that “knowledge is power” are confused because they don’t understand this fact. It is not at all like that!

Only potential power exists in knowledge. Only when and if it is organized into clear action plans and directed toward a clear goal does it acquire strength.

Throughout his whole life, Thomas A. Edison attended school for just three months. He neither lacked education nor did he pass away in poverty.

Henry Ford only received “education” equivalent to the sixth grade, but he has nonetheless been able to support himself financially rather well.

Decide what kind of specialized expertise you need and why you need it before anything else. Your main life aims, or the objective you are striving for, will largely influence the knowledge you require.

Your next step will rely on whether you have correct information about reliable sources of knowledge once this question has been resolved. They are the most crucial:

(a) One’s own training and experience (a) Access to experience and education through others’ cooperation (Master Mind Alliance)

Knowledge must be arranged and applied for a specific purpose through practical planning as it is obtained.

Apart from what can be obtained from applying it to a noble goal, knowledge has no value. This is one of the reasons why a college education is not given more weight. They merely symbolize various types of knowledge.


The Fifth Step toward Riches

All of man’s plans are actually crafted in the mind, which serves as his workshop. Through the aid of the mind’s imaginative faculty, the impulse, the WANT, is given shape, form, and ACTION.

Man is supposedly capable of creating anything he can dream up.

Within reasonable bounds, MAN’S ONLY LIMITATION IS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF HIS IMAGINATION. His utilization of his creative faculties has not yet reached the pinnacle of his development.

He has only recently begun to use his imagination, and it is being used in very simple ways.


There are two ways that creative faculties work. the aforementioned, the aforementioned, and the aforementioned.


One can create novel arrangements of previous notions, ideas, or plans with this skill. Nothing is produced by this ability. It essentially utilizes the information from experience, knowledge, and observation that is provided to it. With the exception of the inventor who uses the creative imagination when he is unable to solve an issue using synthetic imagination, it is the ability that the inventor uses the most.

Creative Imagination:

Man’s finite mind can communicate with infinite intelligence directly thanks to his or her creative imagination. It is the faculty through which “inspirations” and “hunches” are received. It is through this faculty that all fundamental or novel concepts are imparted to man.

The way that the creative imagination operates naturally is described in the pages that follow. This ability only works when the conscious mind is vibrating extremely quickly, such as when the conscious mind is aroused by the emotion of great desire.


The Sixth Step Toward Riches

You now know that the beginning of everything a man makes or obtains is WANT. DESIRE is brought on the first leg of its journey from the abstract to the concrete into the workshop of IMAGINATION, where PLANS are made and organized for its transfer.

Even the most knowledgeable person in the world cannot succeed in amassing wealth or in any other endeavor without having ideas that are realistic and doable.

Simply keep this truth in mind and keep in mind that momentary failure is not the same as a permanent failure when your plans fail. It might merely indicate that your plans weren’t sound. Make different plans. Restart from scratch.

Before perfecting the incandescent electric light bulb, Thomas A. Edison “failed” 10,000 times. In other words, he experienced momentary failure 10,000 times until his efforts were rewarded with success.

Temporary defeat should signify only one thing: you should be certain that your idea is flawed. Men in the millions go through life in misery and poverty because they don’t have a good strategy for building wealth.

Not because of his extraordinary intelligence, but rather because he accepted and stuck to a Strategy that turned out to be sound, Henry Ford amassed a fortune.

One could name a thousand men who have more education than Ford but are nonetheless impoverished because they don’t have the proper strategy for accumulating wealth.

Your success is just as great as how sound your plans are. Although it might seem obvious, what was said was accurate.

The more than $100 million wealth of Samuel Insull was lost. The Insull fortune was created with excellent planning. Due to his new plans’ inadequacies, the business depression prompted Mr. Insull to “temporarily defeat” his original plans.

As an elderly man, Mr. Insull may choose to accept “failure” rather than “temporary defeat,” but if his experience ends in failure, it will be because he lacks the zeal of persistence to rework his plans.

Unless a man QUITS—in his own mind—never is a whip applied.

A winner never gives up; a loser never wins. Take this phrase out, write it in letters an inch high on a piece of paper, and post it where you will see it every evening before you go to bed and every morning before you leave for work.


The Seventh Step Toward Riches

Lack of decision was among the top 30 significant causes of failure, according to an accurate analysis of more than 25,000 men and women who had failed. Not at all only a theory’s assertion—it is a fact.

Decision’s antithesis, PROCRASTINATION, is a common foe that almost every man must overcome.

Most people who don’t generate enough wealth to meet their demands are typically susceptible to the “opinions” of others.

These allow the neighborhood “gossipers” and journalists to do their ‘thinking’ on their behalf.

The cheapest goods on earth are opinions. Everyone has a flock of opinions ready to be showered upon anyone who will receive them.

You won’t be successful in any endeavor, much less turning YOUR OWN PASSION into money, if you let “opinions” affect your DECISIONS.

You won’t have your own Passion if you let other people’s opinions control you.

You possess a mind and a brain of your own. USE IT to inform your decisions.

If you need information or facts from other people in order to make decisions, as you very certainly will in many situations, get them quietly and without letting others know why you need them.


The Eighth Step Toward Riches

The process of converting DESIRE into its monetary equivalent requires PERSISTENCE. Persistence is built on the POWER OF WILL.

When joined effectively, desire and willpower form an unstoppable force. Men who amass large riches are typically thought of as being cold-blooded and occasionally brutal. They are frequently misinterpreted.

As persistence is a mental attitude, it can be developed. Like other mental states, persistence has certain roots, including the following:

a. DESCRIBABILITY OF PURPOSE. The first and arguably most crucial step toward cultivating persistence is knowing what one desires. Strong motivation compels one to overcome numerous obstacles.

b. A NEED. Possessing and maintaining tenacity in pursuing an object of high desire is rather simple.

c. TRUST IN ONESELF. One is more likely to stick with a plan if they have confidence in their abilities to carry it through. The concept covered in the autosuggestion chapter can be used to foster self-reliance.

d. PLANS’ DEFINITIVENESS. Despite being weak and completely impracticable, organized plans promote persistence.

e) RELIABLE INFORMATION. Persistence is encouraged when one knows, through experience or observation, that their plans are sound; it is destroyed when one “guesses” rather than knows.

f) COLLABORATION. Persistence is often developed via compassion, comprehension, and peaceful interpersonal interaction.

Willpower (g). Persistence comes from the practice of focusing one’s thoughts on formulating plans for the accomplishment of a specific goal.

h. A DIET. Habit has a direct impact on persistence. The daily events that nourish the mind are absorbed and integrated into it.

Forced repetition of acts of courage can effectively treat fear, the worst of all foes.

Determine how many of the eight factors of persistence you lack by taking a bold, point-by-point inventory of your character. You might learn things from the analysis that will help you gain a new perspective on yourself.


The Ninth Step Toward Riches

To successfully accumulate wealth, POWER is necessary.

“Coordination of knowledge and effort, in a spirit of harmony, between two or more persons, for the realization of a specific aim” is one definition of the “Master Mind.”

Bear in mind that the universe is only known to contain the two elements energy and matter. It is common knowledge that matter may be divided into atoms, molecules, and electrons.

There are discrete units of matter that can be discovered, distinguished, and studied.

The same is true for units of energy.

The human mind is a type of energy, with a spiritual component to it. The “psychic” phase of the Master Mind is created when two people’s thoughts work together in a SPIRIT OF HARMONY and the spiritual energy units of each mind establish an affinity.

Man has access to the building blocks of nature through the energy of thought! The human brain is comparable to an electrical battery. It receives energy from the ether, which pervades every atom of matter, and fills the entire universe.

The fact that many electric batteries will produce more energy than a single battery is well recognized.

It is also common knowledge that a battery’s ability to store and release energy depends on the number and size of its individual cells.

The way the brain works is similar. A group of brains coordinated (or connected) in a spirit of harmony will provide more thought energy than a single brain, just as a group of electric batteries will provide more energy than a single battery. This explains why some brains are more efficient than others.


The Tenth Step toward Riches

In layman’s terms, the definition of “transmute” is “the changing, or transferring, of one element, or form of energy into another.”

The sensation of intercourse creates a mental condition.

Due to a lack of knowledge on the topic and the unfavorable effects that the majority of people have been exposed to when learning about sex, things that are simply physical have greatly distorted people’s perceptions.

The strongest human want is sex desire. Men who are propelled by this passion grow in ways they never have before, including in their inventiveness, courage, willpower, persistence, and creativity.

The need for sex is so powerful and compelling that men will willingly put their lives and reputations in jeopardy in order to satisfy it.

This driving force can be harnessed and directed in new directions while still retaining all of its qualities, such as a keen imagination, courage, etc.

These qualities can be used as strong creative forces in literature, art, or any other field or calling, including, of course, the acquisition of wealth.

Indeed, the transformation of erotic energy requires the use of willpower, but the payoff is worthwhile.

It is innate and natural to want to engage in sexual activity. The desire cannot be suppressed and should not be done away with.

But it should be provided as a channel through artistic endeavors that improve a person’s body, mind, and spirit. If this type of outlet through transmutation is not provided, it will look for outlets through only physical channels.

Even if a river’s flow can be temporarily controlled by a dam, it will eventually force an outlet. The same is true of sex-related emotions.

For a while, it may be contained and restrained, but by its own nature, it is constantly looking for ways to express itself. If it is not transformed into a creative endeavor, another, less honorable outlet will be found for it.


The Eleventh Step Toward Riches

THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND is made up of a field of consciousness that categorizes and records every thought impulse that enters the objective mind through any of the five senses.

Thoughts can be retrieved from this field of consciousness just like letters may be taken out of a file cabinet.

Whatever the nature, it absorbs and stores sense impressions or thoughts. Every goal, notion, or objective that you want to convert into its material or monetary equivalent may be VOLUNTARILY planted in your subconscious mind.

The dominant desires that have been combined with strong emotional feelings, like faith, are what the subconscious reacts to first.

The subconscious mind is active 24/7.

Although you cannot fully control your subconscious mind, you may consciously give it any goal, desire, or purpose that you want to see come true.

The subconscious mind is active all the time! Your subconscious mind will feed on the thoughts that enter it as a result of your negligence if you don’t implant DESIRES in it.

Everything that a man makes STARTS as an impulse of mind. Nothing that a man creates is something that he has not already imagined in thought.

Thought impulses can be put together into designs with the aid of imagination. When kept under control, the imagination can be employed to come up with ideas or goals that will help one succeed in their chosen field of work.

When she wrote, “You never can tell what a thought would do In bringing you to hate or love— For thoughts are things, and their airy wings Are swifter than carrier doves,” Ella Wheeler Wilcox demonstrated her awareness of the power of the subconscious mind.

They operate in accordance with the universal law that “Everything creates its own kind” and “Everything returns to its source.”

You are getting ready to exert influence and control over your subconscious mind’s “inner audience” in order to give it the WANT for money that you want it to transform into its monetary equivalent.

You must thus comprehend the strategy for approaching this “inner audience.” If you don’t communicate in its language, it won’t answer your call. It understands best the language of emotion or sensation.


The emotion of DESIRE

The emotion of FAITH

The emotion of LOVE

The emotion of SEX

The emotion of ENTHUSIASM

The emotion of ROMANCE

The emotion of HOPE


The emotion of FEAR

The emotion of JEALOUSY

The emotion of HATRED

The emotion of REVENGE

The emotion of GREED

The emotion of SUPERSTITION

The emotion of ANGER

The mind cannot be preoccupied with both positive and bad emotions at the same time. Both cannot coexist; one must prevail. You must take responsibility for ensuring that your mind is dominated by pleasant emotions.


The Twelfth Step toward Riches

More than 20 years ago, the author made the observation that every human brain serves as both a broadcasting and receiving station for the vibration of thinking, in collaboration with the late Dr. Alexander Graham Bell and Dr. Elmer R. Gates.

Every human brain is able to take up vibrations of thought that are being released by other brains through the ether, in a manner akin to that used by the radio broadcasting concept.

Only extremely high-frequency vibrations are picked up by the ether and sent from one brain to another. Thinking is energy that vibrates at a very high frequency.

Ordinary thought vibrates at a considerably lower frequency than the thought that has been altered or “stepped up” by any of the primary emotions, and it is this form of thought that travels from one brain to another through the broadcasting system of the human brain.

In terms of intensity and motivation, the emotion of sex is at the top of the list of human emotions. The brain which has been activated by the emotion of s*x vibrates at a much fast rate than it does when that feeling is quiet or absent.

Sexual transmutation causes the rate at which thoughts vibrate to rise to such a level that the Creative Imagination becomes extremely open to concepts that it pulls up from the ether.

On the other hand, when the brain is vibrating quickly, it not only draws thoughts and ideas emitted by other brains through the ether, but it also provides one’s own thoughts the “feeling” necessary for the subconscious mind to recognize and act upon them.


The Thirteenth Step Toward Riches

The “thirteenth” principle is the SIXTH SENSE, which allows Infinite Intelligence to freely communicate without the need for human effort or consent.

The area of the subconscious mind is known as the SIXTH SENSE.

the Creative Imagination, as it has been called. Also known as the “receiving set,” it is the conduit through which thoughts, plans, and ideas enter the mind. Sometimes the “flashes” are referred to as “inspirations” or “hunches.”

You will be alerted to forthcoming threats in time to avoid them and informed of opportunities in time to seize them with the help of the sixth sense.

With the emergence of the sixth sense, a “guardian angel” who will always unlock the door to the Temple of Wisdom for you will come to your assistance and carry out your instructions.

The author does not support or believe in “miracles,” because he is familiar enough with nature to know that she never deviates from her established laws. Some of her laws are so illogical that they seem to cause “miracles.”

The sixth sense is as close to a miracle as anything the author has ever encountered, but this is only because the author is unaware of how this concept works.


It is not possible to put on or take off the sixth sense at will.

Because the spiritual forces, with which the sixth sense is so closely associated, do not grow and become useable till through years of meditation, self-examination, and serious contemplation, the ability to use this enormous power typically does not become available until one is far over fifty.

Chapter 15: HOW TO OUTWIT THE SIX GHOSTS OF FEAR Take Inventory of Yourself

As You Read This Closing Chapter you will Find Out How Many of the “Ghosts” Are Standing in Your Way

Your mind must be open to receiving this philosophy before you can successfully apply any of its principles. The preparation process is simple. It starts with studying, analyzing, and comprehending the three foes you must defeat. Indecision, uncertainty, and fear are these.

While these three drawbacks, or any of them, are still present in your mind, the Sixth Sense will not work. This unholy trio’s members are tightly related, so wherever one goes, the other two are nearby.

FEAR’s seedling is INDECISION! Keep this in mind while you read. Uncertainty turns into Doubt, and the two combine to form FEAR! ‘Blending’ frequently takes a long time.

These three adversaries are extremely dangerous in part because of this. They develop without anyone noticing them as they germinate and mature.

Knowing an enemy’s identity, habits, and residence is a prerequisite for subduing them. While you read, take a close look at yourself to see whether any of the six basic anxieties have taken up residence in you.

Do not let these sneaky opponents’ habits fool you.

Sometimes they stay concealed in the subconscious mind, making them hard to find and even harder to get rid of.


The fear of POVERTY } at the bottom of The fear of CRITICISM } most of one’s The fear of ILL HEALTH} worries


The fear of OLD AGE

The fear of DEATH

All other fears are of minor importance, they can be grouped under these six headings.

The only thing that fears are are mental states. One may direct and control their mental state. Everyone is aware that doctors are less vulnerable to disease than other people since they have no fear of illness.

Without hesitation or fear, doctors have been known to physically interact with hundreds of patients every day who were afflicted with diseases like smallpox without contracting the illness themselves.

Their complete lack of FEAR served as their main defense against the sickness, if not their only one.


A compromise between poverty and wealth is impossible!

The two paths that lead to wealth and poverty are in opposition to one another. You must reject any situation that puts you in poverty if you want riches. (The term “riches” is used here to denote wealth in its fullest sense, including material, spiritual, mental, and financial). Desire is the starting point of the road to wealth.

Poverty anxiety is only a mental state, nothing more! But it is enough to ruin one’s chances of succeeding in any endeavor; this fact was painfully brought to light during the downturn.

Here is a list of the symptoms for which you should look:


INDIFFERENCE. Lack of ambition is frequently displayed through a readiness to put up with poverty, an acceptance of whatever rewards life may throw your way without complaining, mental and physical sluggishness, as well as a lack of initiative, imagination, enthusiasm, and self-control.

INDECISION. the practice of letting others do your thinking for you. “On the fence” stance.

DOUBT. usually manifested through justifications and apologies meant to conceal, rationalize, or take responsibility for one’s mistakes; it can also take the shape of criticism or envy of those who succeed.

WORRY. Typically manifested as a tendency to criticize others, spending habits that exceed one’s income, disregard for one’s looks, scowling, and frowning; excessive alcohol use; occasionally, drug usage; uneasiness, loss of poise, self-consciousness, and lack of independence.

OVER-CAUTION is the practice of always seeing the worst-case scenario, of contemplating and discussing potential failure rather than focusing on ways to succeed. Understanding all the ways to fail, but never looking for the solutions. waiting until it becomes a permanent habit to put ideas and plans into action; waiting for “the proper time” to start. Forgetting those who have succeeded and remembering those who have failed. Seeing the doughnut’s hole while ignoring the doughnut itself. Pessimism causes indigestion, poor elimination, auto-immunosuppression, bad breath, and a negative attitude.

PROCRASTINATION. the practice of postponing tasks that should have been completed last year till tomorrow. spending enough time coming up with justifications and defenses to get the job done. This symptom is highly correlated with excess caution, uncertainty, and worry. refusal to take accountability when it is avoidable. willingness to negotiate a deal rather than fight tooth and nail. compromising when faced with challenges rather than utilizing them as a springboard for success. Instead of requesting success, richness, wealth, joy, and happiness, one bargains with life for a cent.

Thank you for your time.

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